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A DDOS attack is a service process in the form of multiple requests to a computer system (server) in order to bring it to failure, that is, the creation of such conditions under which system users will not be able to access the provided system resources (servers), or this access will be difficult.
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DDoS is a Distributed Denial of Service, subclass of denial of service attacks (also known as DoS). In fact, this is a hacker attack that overloads the system so that end users cannot use the service. The attack can be directed at the entire IT infrastructure, a specific service, or a channel prior to this service.
Distributed means that the attack is carried out simultaneously from a large number of devices, which are often geographically distributed. These can be either specially prepared servers or botnets from infected devices. A botnet is a group of devices running scripts that execute the code needed by an attacker, in this case, a DDoS attack. Botnets are often collected from devices infected with malware, and their owners are not even aware of the "double life" of their gadgets.
To get a ransom is to bring down the system and demand money for stopping the attack.
To substitute a competitor. For example, to bring down his website on the eve of a major holiday, so that customers could not order anything and went to another store.
There are several classifications of DDoS attacks. Here I want to talk about classification by levels of the OSI model.Low-level. They occur on the L3-L4 OSI model, that is, in the area of the network and transport protocol:
Such attacks are very common. The fact is that the Internet standards were made with the expectation that all participants would use them in good faith.
For example, in the UDP protocol, which works on top of IP, information is transmitted by datagrams, and the packet headers do not contain the IP of either the source or the recipient. UDP trusts addressing to the IP protocol on top of which it works, and the IP protocol has these headers, but they are not checked in any way. Accordingly, many attacks are based on the fact that one of the IP addresses changes, as a rule, this is the IP address of the source. This is called spoofing, i.e. an attack with data substitution of one of the nodes.
Such attacks are characterized by the fact that they load some parts of your infrastructure, clog the channel or fill in service tables.
High-level. They affect the application layer, L7, and affect application protocols, for example, HTTP. The targets of such attacks are the end servers and services.
There are several types of DDoS attacks, depending on what and how specifically they affect. I'll tell you about the four most popular.
UDP works on top of the IP protocol, and there is no connection as such — the data is simply sent without any integrity control. Therefore, an attacker can, for example, substitute the source IP address - send packets from his device, but pretend that they come from other places. It is impossible to check this, and it is in this form that they will come to the server.
With such an attack, the attacker generates a set of packets of the maximum size and sends them to the victim server. The danger is that even if the server is closed on the firewall, it is impossible to influence the filtering of such data before they are received by the network interface. The "last mile" from the edge router to the network interface is often the most vulnerable point in terms of bandwidth. The packets will still go through your channel and fill the bandwidth.
What to do. It is inefficient to ban packets on the server by IP, because the headers are easy to change (the aforementioned spoofing). And if you also listen to something on a UDP port, it becomes especially difficult to deal with the situation.
Usually services that work via UDP are streaming: IPTV, voice servers like Teamspeak, games. There is an option to calculate the length of the package that you usually receive, for example, to enter the game. And configure the firewall so that only the addresses from where the packets of the right size with the appropriate content came from are added to the trusted ones. This can be done by analyzing the traffic dump generated by a legitimate client application.
There are also methods of amplification (amplification) that allow you to repeatedly strengthen the attack. The attacker sends a request to completely normal servers around the world (for example, a DNS query that uses UDP port 53), in which he replaces his address with the victim's address in the headers. Accordingly, all the servers to which the request came send a response not to the attacker's address, but to the victim's address, which was specified in the headers. Since the DNS response is much larger than the request, the amount of data that comes to the victim's server is often very large.
If you do not work via UDP, you can close it altogether — this is what many providers do by placing their DNS servers inside the network.
By the way, a new QUIC protocol is being actively implemented now, which will be a transport protocol for HTTP3. This protocol works just on top of UDP and is likely to be susceptible to such attacks. I don't know yet how they plan to deal with them. Maybe they will develop some suitable tools.
He has an additional action in addition to the one described above. The attacker sends a packet to the victim's server, but says that this is only part of it. The victim server reserves a resource to assemble the package, but no new fragments arrive.
What to do. Discard packets that are expected to be too large in order not to clog your RAM.
TCP has a connection setup mechanism. First, the source sends a SYN request that it wants to establish a connection. The receiving server responds with a SYN+ASK packet that it is ready to connect.
The source responds with an ACK packet, confirming the receipt of SYN+ACK.
The connection is established because both sides have confirmed readiness, and data begins to be transmitted.
There is already an IP address matching check here, so it will not work to replace it. But an attacker can generate a SYN packet, initiating a new session with the victim server, and not establish a connection without sending an ASC. Such an attack overflows the connection table, causing a drop in performance. There is simply no room for real requests.
What to do. Block via firewall by exceeding and configure limits on the number of SYN packets per second that you expect for your service.
It is no longer aimed at the connection, but directly at your service, and usually affects the application layer of the OSI model.
HTTP Flood is just generating requests. There is no substitution, violation of standards or the like. These are distributed requests in order to cause unavailability of your web server. It's trivial — an attacker sends millions of requests to generate the main page of your site, and the server simply can't cope. It's like a real collapse on Black Friday, only caused artificially.
The fight against such attacks varies greatly depending on the infrastructure and the nature of the attack.
A DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack is a type of cyber attack in which a large number of devices or computers flood a target server or website with traffic in order to overload and disrupt its normal functioning.
The attack is called "distributed" because it is carried out by multiple devices, often controlled by a hacker or group of hackers. This makes it difficult for the victim to defend against the attack, as it may be coming from many different sources and can be difficult to distinguish legitimate traffic from attack traffic.
DDoS attacks can be launched for various reasons, including as a form of cyber protest, for financial gain, or simply for the satisfaction of causing disruption. The impact of a successful DDoS attack can be severe, as it can prevent legitimate users from accessing a website or service, and can cause damage to the reputation of the targeted organization.
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